From the beginning of this century, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, there has been some dispute about the exact origin of the image manipulation term. But for many years, as a popular and widely documented practice, it appeared that the term was based on the image produced when two different photographic film negatives are combined, rather than on the act of cutting or enlarging them. A number of early scientific papers cited a photographic article by Sir Ernest Ochs, a French zoologist, in 1879 showing that it was possible to make an image in a negative by combining it with a negative of something. But according to that article, the technique involved mixing the images together with “cold acids” and then exposing one side to the negative “hot,” a process that is sometimes referred to today as “color processing.” In the same article, Ochs also discusses two other techniques: “paleographic techniques,” which involve “blurring the line between color and black and white,” and “dynamic” processes, which involve creating “somewhat flat” images. “The combination of negative with bright source in a transparent medium is commonly called ‘color processing,'” wrote Ochs. “The application of cold acids to the negative before exposure to the light source or to the lightening of subject with a bright source is termed ‘dynamic processing’.” This is also referred to as “color processing” today, although it may be possible to apply it only to photographic films.
But that didn’t stop the use of images in advertising until very recently. The first successful advertising image made by the camera itself didn’t come by accident; it came from the development of the photographic image sensor (known as the “pico,” or “micro”), a device that made it possible to create image data directly on the sensor of a camera without having to apply light for the shot. The use of the “motorized image sensor” in the early 1900s allowed photographers to create an image directly on the camera’s lens without having to wait for the light. The first successful commercial image of the camera came from a photograph from a 1908 issue of Vogue magazine. An image of a young woman was used to illustrate a “man’s eye view” of a woman, a type of photograph popular in the 1910s.
At a time when most advertising was primarily made with “white-on-black” and sepia-toned photographs, it was also relatively easy for photographers to make an “illustrations” photo, a photograph of
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