A magnet is made up of the same substance that allows a small magnet that weighs only a few billionths of a billionth of a meter in diameter to spin like a top (see picture). A magnet is formed through the action of an electric current flowing through the magnetic material. Magnetic forces can pull, hold and rotate a magnet, even when the metal is not even in contact with the magnet and when the power applied to a magnet is small.
Some materials have a very low magnetic permeability (the amount of material in which there is no attraction or repulsion between it and the magnet), which are generally not suitable for use in building magnet systems due to their low power consumption in the small size needed – up to a few milliwatts.
Figure 3.3 – Magnet Structure
Figure 3.4 – High-Tension Magnet Elements
There are four basic types of high-tension magnet elements that can be used in magnet systems and they may be used either as one, two or three layers. The high-tension elements of a magnet must be constructed with a particular balance of strength in their cores (Fig.3.4) which can be done by using either thin or thicker sections, layers or segments.
The magnetic materials must be capable of withstanding very high magnetic field fluxes. For example, a magnetic core could have a magnetic field strength of over 2 T (one million million electron volts) and be constructed over a thickness of 0.1 mm, and a thin cross section could have a strength of over 7 MPa. For a magnet of this size it is not always possible to fabricate and shape such magnets with one or two layers. If this is so, you can manufacture two layers that consist only of metal, but of which the one layer is thicker than the thinner one and so both layers can be used without the need to connect the first three layers into a network.
There are five primary components: The primary magnet material is usually a metallic copper or aluminium alloy with a magnetic material in the centre.
The secondary magnetic material is usually in a form of aluminium, titanium or ferromagnetic silicate, in which a layer of either iron or copper is added by welding. If one or more layers have to be manufactured then they must have the same magnetic magnetic core.
When a magnet is made, a dielectric (magnetising agent) is used to provide conductance to the main magnet material
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